Table of Contents
Clover honey, derived primarily from the nectar of clover flowers, is one of the most widely available and popular honey varieties. It is known for its light, mild flavor and slightly floral aroma, making it a favorite among many honey enthusiasts. In contrast, other types of honey, such as wildflower, manuka, or buckwheat honey, are sourced from different floral sources and therefore exhibit unique flavors, colors, and health benefits. For instance, manuka honey, obtained from the manuka bush in New Zealand, is renowned for its potent antibacterial properties, whereas buckwheat honey, with its robust and earthy flavor, is rich in antioxidants. The specific characteristics of each honey type are influenced by the nectar source, which in turn is determined by the bees’ foraging behavior and the floral biodiversity of their environment. Understanding these differences can guide consumers in choosing the right honey for their dietary preferences and health needs.
The below paragraphs offer a more detailed look at clover honey vs honey…
Here in the United States, there are hundreds of distinct types of honey, and the differences between them are determined by the floral source used by the bees collecting the nectar. So, the taste and color of honey produced by bees will depend on the plants in the area where the hive is located. With that being said, clover honey is one of the most common types of honey produced in the U.S. Within the category of clover honey, there are also varieties in taste and color, depending on which clover plant has been foraged by the bees. Clover honey can be white or shades of amber when it comes to color.
Is There a Difference Between Clover Honey and Raw Honey?
Clover honey is something that you might have heard of, considering it is the most common type of honey in the U.S. The term ‘raw honey’ might also be something that you have heard of, and you may then be wondering what it is and how it differs from clover honey.
What is important to realize here is that raw honey can also be a variety of clover honey. When we ask, “what is clover honey”, we need to understand that it refers to the fact that the primary floral source for the production of the honey was the flowers of the clover plant.
Raw honey is a term used to describe honey that is taken directly from the hive and strained by the beekeeper before being consumed or sold locally. Raw honey is not commercially mass produced and does not contain any preservatives or sweeteners. However, raw honey can also be clover honey. The question that you should ask is if there is a difference between raw honey and regular (store-bought) honey.
How Does Raw Honey Compare to Regular Honey?
There is actually quite a significant difference between raw honey and regular honey. Most people have never tried raw honey; indeed, many do not even realize that the honey they buy from the grocery store is completely different to honey that is harvested straight from the hive.
Regular honey begins its journey as raw honey in that it is produced by bees and is harvested from a beehive. However, before it finds its way to a grocery store shelf, it undergoes quite a bit of processing.
First it is pasteurized, which involves heating it to extremely high temperatures before rapidly cooling it again. This process eliminates most of the natural goodness in the honey while also changing the taste and texture.
Commercial honey is then ultra-filtered through filters with tiny holes to remove any particles such as pollen (which is, incidentally, one of the main nutritional benefits of raw honey). During processing, almost all pollen is removed, and artificial sweeteners are added to the honey, thereby changing the taste and increasing the yield. Regular honey does not contain any of the enzymes, vitamins, or antioxidants that are found in raw honey.
Raw honey, on the other hand, is taken directly from the hive and is strained through a nylon cloth or piece of mesh to remove particles such as beeswax, dead bees, etc. Once this process has been done, the strained liquid is poured into jars and is ready to be sold locally. Raw honey contains powerful antioxidants, pollen, enzymes, and a variety of vitamins and minerals. It is antibacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral and is beneficial to good health. It does not contain any additives.
As mentioned above, raw honey can also be clover honey if the main floral source used by the bees to produce the honey came from the clover plant.
What Are the Main Sources of Nectar for Clover Honey and Raw Honey?
When discussing honey production, it’s essential to understand the primary sources of nectar that contribute to the distinct flavors and characteristics of different types of honey. In the case of clover honey and raw honey, their nectar sources can vary significantly, leading to unique tastes and properties.
Clover honey, as the name suggests, comes predominantly from the nectar of clover flowers. Clover is a widespread plant, with over 300 species found across the world. The most common clovers used for honey production are the white clover (Trifolium repens) and the red clover (Trifolium pratense). These plants are highly attractive to honeybees due to their sweet nectar and abundance in many regions. Clover honey is often light in color and has a mild, sweet taste, making it popular among honey enthusiasts.
On the other hand, raw honey refers to honey that has not been processed, heated, or filtered. It is as close to its natural state as possible, retaining all its beneficial enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Raw honey can be derived from a wide variety of nectar sources, depending on the floral sources available in the area where the bees forage. These sources can include fruit blossoms, wildflowers, herbs, and other nectar-producing plants. The specific combination of nectar sources will determine the color, flavor, and texture of the raw honey, resulting in a unique product that can vary from one region or season to another.
How Do the Textures of Clover Honey and Raw Honey Differ?
One notable difference between clover honey and raw honey is their texture, which can have a significant impact on their culinary applications and the overall sensory experience when consuming them.
Clover honey is a monofloral variety, meaning that it is primarily derived from the nectar of clover flowers. This type of honey has a light, mild flavor and a smooth, even texture. The consistency of clover honey can be described as moderately thick and viscous, which makes it easy to pour and spread. It is perfect for drizzling over your morning yogurt, stirring into tea, or using as a natural sweetener in various recipes.
On the other hand, raw honey is unprocessed, unpasteurized, and unfiltered, which helps preserve its natural properties and health benefits. Due to the minimal processing, raw honey retains more pollen, bee propolis, and other micronutrients. This results in a more complex and robust flavor profile, with a texture that can vary significantly depending on factors such as the nectar source, the season, and the climate.
In general, raw honey tends to be thicker, more granular, and less uniform in consistency compared to clover honey. It is common for raw honey to crystallize more quickly, which can give it a grainy or semi-solid texture. This crystallization process is natural and does not affect the quality of the honey. Nevertheless, the unique texture of raw honey can make it an excellent choice for spreading on toast or using in recipes where a more substantial and distinct honey presence is desired.
How Do the Nutritional Profiles of Clover Honey and Raw Honey Compare?
When comparing the nutritional profiles of clover honey and raw honey, it’s important to understand the unique properties of each type.
Nutritional Content of Clover Honey
Clover honey is known for its light color and mild, sweet flavor. Nutritionally, it contains a variety of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, albeit in relatively small amounts. Some of the nutrients found in clover honey include vitamin C, calcium, potassium, and trace amounts of other minerals. It also contains small amounts of antioxidants, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which help protect the body against oxidative stress.
Nutritional Content of Raw Honey
Raw honey, being unprocessed, preserves more of its natural nutritional content. It contains an array of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and enzymes that are beneficial for overall health. Some of the nutrients found in raw honey include B vitamins, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron. Additionally, raw honey typically contains higher levels of antioxidants compared to processed honey, such as clover honey. These antioxidants help support the immune system and protect against cellular damage.
Comparing the Two
Both clover honey and raw honey have similar nutritional profiles, with the primary difference being the level of nutrients and antioxidants. Raw honey generally contains more of these beneficial compounds due to its unprocessed nature. Nonetheless, the specific nutritional content of each type of honey can vary depending on factors such as the location of the bees, the types of flowers they forage from, and the time of year.
What Is the Difference in Taste Between Clover Honey and Raw Honey?
Clover honey and raw honey can be considered two distinct types of honey that differ in their taste, color, and consistency. The primary distinction between the two varieties lies in the source of nectar and the degree of processing each type undergoes.
The flavor of clover honey is mild and sweet, making it an ideal choice for those who prefer a less intense taste. Additionally, it often has a light golden hue and a smooth, uniform consistency, resulting from a controlled and consistent production process.
Unlike clover honey, raw honey can come from a variety of nectar sources, leading to a diverse range of flavors and colors. It tends to be more robust and complex in taste, with the specific flavor profile depending on the floral sources visited by the bees. Raw honey also has a thicker, more granular texture compared to clover honey, as it may contain particles of pollen, beeswax, and other natural components.
What Are the Health Benefits of Clover Honey and Raw Honey?
Both clover honey and raw honey offer a variety of health benefits:
Rich in Antioxidants
Both clover honey and raw honey contain high levels of antioxidants, which help protect the body against free radicals and oxidative stress. These antioxidants include flavonoids, phenolic acids, and enzymes such as catalase and glucose oxidase. Regular consumption of honey with a high antioxidant content may help reduce the risk of chronic diseases, improve heart health, and support a healthy immune system.
Natural Energy Booster
Honey is a natural source of carbohydrates and sugars, making it an excellent energy booster. The natural sugars in clover and raw honey are easily absorbed by the body, providing a quick source of energy without causing the blood sugar spikes often associated with refined sugar. Including honey in your diet may help improve endurance and reduce fatigue, especially during physical activities.
Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties
Raw honey, in particular, has impressive antibacterial and antifungal properties. This is primarily due to its low water content and high acidity, which create an inhospitable environment for bacteria and fungi. Additionally, raw honey contains hydrogen peroxide, which is produced by the enzyme glucose oxidase and contributes to its antimicrobial properties. These characteristics make raw honey an effective treatment for minor wounds, burns, and skin infections.
Soothes Sore Throats and Coughs
Honey has long been used as a natural remedy for soothing sore throats and reducing coughs. The thick, viscous texture of honey coats the throat, providing relief from irritation and inflammation. Moreover, its antimicrobial properties can help fight off the infection causing the symptoms. Consuming honey, either on its own or mixed with warm water or tea, may provide relief from colds and coughs.
Are There Any Potential Drawbacks or Risks to Using Clover Honey or Raw Honey?
Although clover honey and raw honey are popular natural sweeteners with numerous health benefits, there are a few potential drawbacks and risks associated with their consumption.
Some individuals may experience allergic reactions to honey, particularly if they have a known allergy to pollen or bee venom. Symptoms can range from mild, such as itching or swelling, to severe, such as anaphylactic shock. Those with known allergies should exercise caution when consuming clover honey or raw honey.
Botulism Risk for Infants
Raw honey may contain spores of Clostridium botulinum, the bacterium responsible for producing the toxin that causes botulism. While the risk of botulism from consuming raw honey is minimal for adults, it poses a significant risk to infants under one year of age, as their immune systems are not yet fully developed. It is crucial to avoid giving raw honey to infants to prevent the potentially life-threatening condition known as infant botulism.
Glycemic Index and Diabetes
While honey is a natural sweetener, it still contains sugars that can affect blood sugar levels. People with diabetes should be mindful of their honey consumption, as it may cause spikes in blood glucose levels. It is essential to monitor blood sugar and consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice on honey consumption for those with diabetes.
Adulteration and Quality Concerns
Unfortunately, some commercially available honey products may be adulterated with other sweeteners, such as high-fructose corn syrup or other sugars, reducing the overall quality and potential health benefits. To ensure you’re consuming pure, unadulterated honey, source your honey from a reliable and reputable supplier or local beekeepers.
Can People with Allergies or Sensitivities Consume Both Clover Honey and Raw Honey?
For individuals with allergies or sensitivities, it’s essential to understand the differences between clover honey and raw honey, as well as the potential effects they may have on your health.
Clover honey is typically pasteurized and filtered, which removes impurities and potential allergens, such as pollen particles. Most people with pollen allergies can safely consume clover honey, as the pasteurization process often destroys the allergenic proteins responsible for triggering symptoms. However, it’s always wise to consult with a healthcare professional before trying any new food if you have a history of allergies or sensitivities.
Raw honey, on the other hand, is unprocessed, unfiltered, and unpasteurized. It retains all the natural nutrients, enzymes, and pollen particles, which gives it a richer taste and a thicker texture. While this can be beneficial from a nutritional standpoint, it also means that raw honey may pose a higher risk for those with pollen allergies or sensitivities. Consuming raw honey may lead to allergy symptoms in some individuals, such as itching, swelling, or even anaphylaxis in severe cases.
It’s important to note that honey allergies are relatively rare, and many people with pollen allergies can safely consume both clover and raw honey without experiencing any adverse reactions. However, if you have a known pollen allergy or sensitivity, it is advisable to exercise caution and consult your healthcare provider before trying any new type of honey. As a general rule, those with allergies or sensitivities may find clover honey to be a safer option due to its lower pollen content and the pasteurization process it undergoes.
How Are the Antimicrobial Properties of Clover Honey and Raw Honey Different?
Clover honey and raw honey, though both derived from the nectar of flowers, exhibit differences in their antimicrobial properties due to their distinct compositions. While clover honey typically refers to honey made primarily from the nectar of clover flowers, raw honey encompasses a broader range of honey varieties and sources. These honey types can come from various floral origins, often with diverse flavors, colors, and characteristics.
The Role of Antimicrobial Properties in Honey
The antimicrobial properties of honey are attributed to factors such as hydrogen peroxide, low pH, high sugar concentration, and other naturally occurring compounds. These factors work synergistically to inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens. The potency of these antimicrobial properties, however, can vary based on the floral source of the honey and the specific compounds present.
Comparing Antimicrobial Properties of Clover Honey and Raw Honey
Clover honey, with its mild flavor and light color, is known for containing a lower concentration of antimicrobial substances compared to some other types of raw honey. The primary antimicrobial agent in clover honey is hydrogen peroxide, which is produced by the enzyme glucose oxidase. This enzyme, present in honey, breaks down glucose to produce hydrogen peroxide, a powerful antimicrobial agent. However, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in clover honey is generally lower than that found in other types of raw honey.
On the other hand, raw honey from different floral sources can contain additional antimicrobial compounds such as methylglyoxal (MGO) and bee-derived defensin-1. These compounds enhance the antimicrobial properties of honey, making some varieties of raw honey more potent against pathogens than clover honey. For instance, Manuka honey, sourced from the Manuka bush, is renowned for its high MGO content, which contributes to its strong antimicrobial properties.
Is Clover Honey 100% Honey?
Is clover honey real honey? According to the FDA, authentic honey contains pollen. All raw honey will contain pollen as it has not undergone any processing such as ultra-filtration, which is a process designed to remove particles such as pollen.
Commercially produced regular honey rarely contains any pollen. Indeed, many beekeepers would not even class it as honey at all.
However, if your clover honey is raw honey, sourced from a local beekeeper, you can be sure that it is 100% honey.
How Is Clover Honey Processed Compared to Raw Honey?
To understand the differences between clover honey and raw honey, it’s essential to discuss the processing techniques for each type.
Clover Honey Processing
Clover honey undergoes a more refined process to achieve its distinct taste, aroma, and consistency. After bees collect nectar from clover flowers and store it in their hive, beekeepers carefully extract the honey. This involves several steps:
- Uncapping: Beekeepers use a heated knife to remove the wax caps that bees have sealed the honeycomb cells with, exposing the honey.
- Extraction: Using a honey extractor, the honey is spun out of the honeycomb frames, allowing it to flow into a collection container.
- Straining: The honey is passed through a fine mesh strainer to remove any remaining wax particles or debris.
- Heating and cooling: Clover honey is often gently heated and cooled in a controlled manner to achieve a smooth, uniform texture. This process, called pasteurization, also helps inhibit the growth of yeast and other microorganisms, prolonging the honey’s shelf life.
- Bottling: Once the honey has reached the desired consistency, it is bottled and labeled as clover honey.
Raw Honey Processing
In contrast, raw honey undergoes minimal processing, preserving its natural enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. The process typically includes the following steps:
- Uncapping: Similar to clover honey, the wax caps are removed from the honeycomb cells.
- Extraction: Honey is spun out of the honeycomb frames using a honey extractor and collected in a container.
- Straining: Raw honey is strained to remove large particles, such as wax or bee parts. However, unlike clover honey, the straining process is less thorough, allowing some pollen and propolis particles to remain in the honey.
- Bottling: Raw honey is bottled without any heating, cooling, or pasteurization, preserving its natural properties.
What Kind of Honey is Best?
The best type of honey in terms of taste is a matter of personal preference, but if you want the healthiest honey, it is best to choose raw honey over commercially produced honey.
As discussed multiple times in this article, raw honey contains a variety of vitamins and minerals as well as antioxidants that are all beneficial to one’s health. Bee pollen found in raw honey contains micronutrients, amino acids, vitamins, and essential fatty acids and has been found to help fight inflammation and help protect against heart disease and some forms of cancer.
While all honey, raw and regular, contains high levels of sugar and should therefore be enjoyed in moderation, regular honey also contains additional sweeteners such as sugar and corn syrup.
Is Clover Honey Considered Raw Honey?
Whether honey is raw or not depends not on the flowers foraged by the bees but on whether it has been processed. This is something that many people are confused about. They have heard the terms ‘raw honey’ and ‘clover honey’ and assume they are the same thing.
While raw honey may have been produced by bees that have taken nectar from the clover plant, this is not always the case. So, clover honey can be raw honey, but it is not exclusively so. Some commercially produced raw honey is also classed as clover honey.
Are There Any Specific Uses for Clover Honey Versus Raw Honey?
Clover honey and raw honey each offer unique properties and benefits, which lend themselves to a variety of applications. While both types of honey are naturally sweet and delicious, there are some key differences in their taste, texture, and uses.
Clover Honey: A Versatile Choice
Its smooth texture and mild taste make it a popular choice for a range of culinary and medicinal purposes. Some specific uses for clover honey include:
- Sweetening beverages like tea or coffee
- Drizzling on yogurt, oatmeal, or toast
- Baking, as it complements a wide variety of recipes
- Soothing a sore throat or cough, thanks to its mild, anti-inflammatory properties.
Raw Honey: A Nutrient-Rich Powerhouse
Some specific uses for raw honey include:
- Adding a complex, rich sweetness to sauces, dressings, or marinades
- Making homemade granola or energy bars, where its natural nutrient content can be appreciated
- Applying topically as a natural skincare treatment, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties
- Boosting the immune system and promoting overall health, as raw honey contains antioxidants and beneficial enzymes
Are There Any Environmental Concerns Related to the Production of Clover Honey and Raw Honey?
Yes, there are some environmental concerns associated with the production of both clover honey and raw honey. The primary concerns revolve around pesticide use, monoculture farming, and the well-being of honeybee populations.
One of the most significant environmental concerns in honey production is the use of pesticides in agricultural fields where bees forage for nectar. Pesticides can negatively impact the health of honeybees and other pollinators by causing disorientation, reduced foraging efficiency, and even death. In turn, this can lead to decreased honey production and weakened bee colonies. Moreover, traces of these harmful chemicals can sometimes be found in the honey itself, posing potential health risks to consumers.
Clover honey is typically produced in large-scale agricultural settings where fields of clover are grown as a monoculture. Monoculture farming can have negative environmental impacts, such as decreased biodiversity, increased vulnerability to pests, and reduced soil fertility. This type of farming can also lead to an overdependence on a single plant species for honeybees, potentially limiting their access to other essential nutrients.
The health and well-being of honeybee populations are critical to the production of honey, as well as to the pollination of many crops. However, honeybees face numerous threats, including habitat loss, climate change, and diseases such as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Ensuring that honey production practices prioritize the health of honeybee populations is crucial in mitigating these environmental concerns.
Clover Honey vs Raw Honey – Summary
In addressing the distinctions of clover honey vs honey, it is crucial to recognize that the two are not mutually exclusive. Clover honey can indeed be classified as raw honey if it is obtained directly from the hive without undergoing any processing. The clover plant, which is frequently the primary floral source for commercially produced honey, often leads to the misconception that clover honey and regular honey are synonymous. However, it is essential to differentiate between raw and regular honey based on their production methods.
Raw honey remains unprocessed, undergoing only a simple straining procedure to remove impurities before consumption. This minimal intervention preserves the natural nutrients, enzymes, and antioxidants present in the honey, thus retaining its health benefits. In contrast, regular honey is subjected to extensive processing, including pasteurization and filtration, which strip away nearly all of its nutritional value. Consequently, when comparing clover honey to raw honey, it is important to consider the processing methods employed, as the two terms may overlap, but their differences lie in the preservation of their natural qualities.
Q: What is clover honey meaning? A: Clover honey is a type of honey produced by bees that primarily gather nectar from clover flowers. It has a light, sweet flavor and is one of the most popular types of honey. Clover honey is known for its numerous health benefits and is often used as a natural sweetener and remedy for various ailments.
Q: Is clover honey the same as regular honey? A: No, clover honey is not the same as regular honey. Clover honey is made from the nectar of clover flowers, while regular honey can come from various sources. Clover honey is known for its mild, sweet taste and is popular for its versatility in cooking and baking.
Q: Is raw honey better than regular honey? A: Raw honey is considered better than regular honey because it is not heated or processed, preserving more nutrients and enzymes. Regular honey undergoes pasteurization, which destroys some of its beneficial properties. Raw honey also has a more pronounced flavor. However, it’s important to note that infants under one year old should not consume raw honey due to the risk of botulism.
Q: Is clover honey regular honey? A: Clover honey and regular honey are not the same. While regular honey is a generic term for all types, clover honey is specifically derived from clover flower nectar. Clover honey has a lighter, milder flavor compared to other honey varieties.
Q: What’s the difference between pure honey vs raw honey? A: When comparing pure honey vs raw honey, there are some differences to consider. Pure honey refers to honey that has been processed and filtered, removing impurities and extending its shelf life. On the other hand, raw honey is extracted straight from the beehive without any processing, making it more natural but also more likely to contain pollen, propolis, and other substances.
Q: Why is there confusion between clover honey and raw honey? A: The confusion arises because clover honey can be both raw and processed, and many people mistakenly assume that all clover honey is raw. Additionally, both types of honey can have similar color and taste, making it difficult for consumers to differentiate between them without proper labeling.
Q: How can I tell if my honey is raw or processed? A: Raw honey tends to be thicker, cloudier, and may contain small particles like pollen, beeswax, or propolis. Processed honey is typically clearer, smoother, and more uniform in appearance. However, the most reliable way to determine if honey is raw or processed is to check the label or inquire with the producer.
Q: Is clover honey less healthy than other types of honey? A: Clover honey can be just as healthy as other types of honey, depending on its processing. If it is raw and unprocessed, it will retain its beneficial properties. However, if it has been heated or filtered, some nutrients and enzymes may be lost. The health benefits of honey depend on its processing and quality, rather than the specific floral source.
Q: Can I use clover honey and raw honey interchangeably in recipes? A: Yes, you can generally use clover honey and raw honey interchangeably in recipes. However, keep in mind that raw honey may have a slightly stronger flavor and may crystallize more quickly than processed honey. Additionally, the unique characteristics of each type of honey may slightly alter the taste or texture of the final product.
Q: How should I store clover honey and raw honey? A: Both clover honey and raw honey should be stored in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. Raw honey may crystallize over time, but this does not affect its quality. To liquefy crystallized honey, place the jar in a bowl of warm water and stir gently until the desired consistency is achieved. Do not microwave or expose honey to high heat, as this can destroy its beneficial properties.
Q: Are there any risks associated with consuming raw honey? A: Raw honey may contain traces of bacteria, such as Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism in infants under one year old. Therefore, it’s not recommended to give raw honey to babies. For healthy adults, the risk of contracting botulism from raw honey is extremely low, but it’s still essential to purchase honey from a reputable source to ensure quality and safety.
Q: Can I use clover honey and raw honey as a natural sweetener? A: Yes, both clover honey and raw honey can be used as natural sweeteners in a variety of dishes and beverages, such as tea, smoothies, yogurt, and baked goods. However, honey is still a form of sugar, so it’s essential to consume it in moderation.
Q: What are the environmental benefits of choosing raw honey? A: By choosing raw honey, you’re supporting beekeepers who prioritize sustainable and ethical beekeeping practices, which are crucial for maintaining healthy bee populations and ecosystems. Additionally, raw honey typically undergoes less processing, which can help reduce the environmental impact of honey production.
Q: How can I ensure that I’m purchasing high-quality clover honey or raw honey? A: To ensure you’re purchasing high-quality honey, look for honey that is labeled as raw, unfiltered, and unpasteurized if you want raw honey. For clover honey, check for a label indicating that it comes from a reputable source and that it is primarily made from clover nectar. You can also look for third-party certifications, such as organic or non-GMO, to ensure the honey meets specific quality standards. Buying honey from local beekeepers and farmers’ markets can also be a great way to ensure quality and support local businesses.
MEDICAL DISCLAIMER: The content on this page is for informational purposes only and where applicable is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding any type of medical condition, including the potential for allergic reactions or medical emergencies related to eating or drinking certain foodstuffs or beverages or from having a reaction to using any type of pesticide. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this page (or elsewhere on this site). If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or emergency services immediately. Reliance on any information provided by this website is solely at your own risk.
Last update on 2024-02-22 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API